By Michael Anderson
Even supposing we regularly seek social and old files for clues to our previous, organic records probably carry an important facts of our background. The characteristics we inherit from our mom and dad and cross directly to our offspring are encoded in our genes and DNA and display a lot approximately either our origins and our destiny. This quantity examines the interesting biology at the back of genetics and genetic issues. It additionally rigorously considers the rules of gene manipulation and genetic engineering whose strength to revolutionize drugs, undefined, and agriculture is turning into more and more obtrusive with each new discovery.
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Additional info for A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering (Introduction to Biology)
Recognition and Cleavage Of the three types of restriction enzymes, type II is the most useful in genetic 58 The Practice of Genetic Engineering engineering. Types I and III restriction enzymes cleave DNA randomly, often at some distance from the recognition sequence. By contrast, type II restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sites within the recognition sequence. Each time a particular restriction enzyme is used, the DNA is cut at precisely the same places in the molecule. Today more than 3,600 type II restriction enzymes are known, forming a molecular tool kit that allows scientists to cut chromosomes into various desired lengths, depending on how many different restriction enzymes are mixed with the chromosome under investigation.
As the mutant gene is passed down through generations it becomes more common within the group. Tay-Sachs disease, which results in paralysis, dementia, and death by the age of five, occurs almost exclusively in descendants of Eastern European Jews. Sicklecell disease, a disorder caused by a defect in hemoglobin that affects oxygen transport in the blood, is most common among people of African descent. The thalassemias, a group of hemoglobin disorders that cause mild to severe anemia, are fairly widespread, though the highest prevalence is among people from Cyprus.
During the second meiotic division, the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 38 The Nature of Chromosomes and Genes final result is four daughter cells, each with a haploid chromosome number. When a male gamete combines with a female gamete during fertilization, the diploid chromosome number is restored. Genes and the Genetic Code As arbiters of body form and organ function, genes must operate with precision. Each gene contains a biochemical code for the synthesis of a protein.
A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering (Introduction to Biology) by Michael Anderson