By Samuel Hugh McGrady
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Additional resources for A note-book of European history, 1400-1920
Most of the Portuguese possessions were lost to the Dutch in the seventeenth century. Brazil became independent 1822. -1506) , by a study of Ptolemy and Marco Polo, came to the conclusion that the East could be reached by a shorter route than by that which led round Africa. In 1492, after the capture of Granada, he was furnished with three ships - the Santa Maria (100 tons), the Minta (60 tons), and the Nina 26 AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE (20 tons). Ptolemy, however, had made the circumference of the earth too short by a sixth, so that Columbus expected to find Japan about the position of the Sandwich Isles.
But Philip was a foreigner and a cruel, bigoted tyrant, who alienated all classes. (2) OUTLINE OF THE STRUGGLE (1556-1648) (1) A PERIOD OF PROVOCATION (1556-1567) when Margaret of Parma was regent (1559-1567). The substitution of a cabinet of three for the Council of State irritated the nobles. In 1564, however, Philip was forced to withdraw Margaret's adviser Granvella, and Egmont, Horn, and William of Nassau (Orange) resumed their seats in the Council of ~tate. A protest of the nobles against the order of Philip to carry out the decrees of the Council of Trent gained for them the name of " Beggars" (" What, Madam, is your Highness afraid of these beggars?
The use of paper (in place of parchment), introduced into Europe by the Arabs, enabled books to be produced in quantities. (5) THE ECONOMIC RENAISSANCE The end of the Middle Ages witnessed the decay of Feudalism, both military and economic. Along with the collapse of the Manorial System went the emancipation of the serfs. Serfdom gradually disappeared with the growth of industry, and the medieval system of landholding began to give way to the capitalistic system. The rise of towns and the development of trade led to the creation of the middle classes, the members of which formed an aristocracy of wealth as opposed to that of birth.
A note-book of European history, 1400-1920 by Samuel Hugh McGrady