Download PDF by J. J. (edited by) Fripiat: Advanced techniques for clay mineral analysis: invited

By J. J. (edited by) Fripiat

ISBN-10: 0444420029

ISBN-13: 9780444420022

Invited Contributions from the Symposium held throughout the seventh overseas Clay convention, Bologna and Pavia, Italy, 6-12 Sept. 1981

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Additional info for Advanced techniques for clay mineral analysis: invited contributions from the symposium held at the 7th International Clay Conference, September 6-12, 1981, Bologna and Pavia, Italy

Sample text

Another essential difference between neutrons and electromagnetic radiation lies in the fact that, except in the case of magnetic materials, neutrons are scattered by nuclei and not electrons. The nature of the neutron-nucleus interaction depends on the relative orientations of the neutronic and nuclear spins. As will be shown in the next section, this implies the existence of a randomly varying component of the scattered wave amplitude in addition to a uniformly varying component. 53 The l a t t e r alone is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e phenomena l e a d i n g t o coherent d i f f r a c t i o n of neutrons ( p r e c i s e l y analogous t o X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n ) .

5 A s e p a r a t i o n ) p r o v i d e s a hexagonal l a t t i c e image w h i c h i n c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s i s r e l a t e d t o a s i n g l e - l a y e r s t r u c t u r e - p r o j e c t i o n as shown by J e f f e r s o n and Thomas (1974). However such l a t t i c e - f r i n g e images a r e a l m o s t t h e same f o r a l l c l a y miner a l s and can h a r d l y g i v e any i n t e r e s t i n g s t r u c t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e i r occurence i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s t a c k i n g i s n o t a t u r b o s t r a t i c one ( s e e F i g .

Aperture l i m i t a t i o n . The presence of a c i r c u l a r diaphragm o f r a d i u s Ro i n 35 t h e b a c k - f o c a l p l a n e can be r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e a p e r t u r e - f u n c t i o n A ( R ) , A = 1 for R < Ro; A = o for where R > Ro - S p h e r i c a l a b e r r a t i o n ( s e e F i g . 2 . 2 ) . , Defocus due t o s p h e r i c a l a b e r r a t i o n grows as t h e 3rd power o f t h e s c a t t e r i n a n g l e 28; f o r an a n g u l a r a p e r t u r e a i t l e a d s t o a smearing-disc o f r a d i u s Cs a ( r e f e r e d t o t h e o b j e c t p l a n e ) ; C s i s t h e spher i c a l a b e r r a t i o n c o n s t a n t .

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Advanced techniques for clay mineral analysis: invited contributions from the symposium held at the 7th International Clay Conference, September 6-12, 1981, Bologna and Pavia, Italy by J. J. (edited by) Fripiat


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