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By Maxime Bocher

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This emphasizes the fact that initial conditions for the differential-algebraic equation formulation must be consistent with the algebraic constraint for it to be well-posed. A more appropriate reduction is to replace (124a) by y ′ = y + φ(y), where φ(y) is the real value of z which satisfies (124b). 37 D IFFERENTIAL AND D IFFERENCE E QUATIONS Figure 123(i) Illustration of symplectic behaviour for two problems: H(p, q) = p2 /2 + q 2 /2 (left) and H(p, q) = p2 /2 − cos(q) (right). The underlying image depicts the North Island brown kiwi, Apteryx mantelli.

Dx Multiply both sides by exp(−Lx) and deduce that d exp(−Lx) y(x) − z(x) dx ≤ 0, implying that y(x) − z(x) ≤ y0 − z0 exp L(x − a) . (110c) This bound on the growth of initial perturbations may be too pessimistic in particular circumstances. Sometimes it can be improved upon by the use of the ‘one-sided Lipschitz condition’. This will be discussed in Subsection 112. Local Lipschitz condition Definition 110A is too restrictive to apply to many important practical problems. We can obtain a weaker version of Theorem 110C if we assume a local version of the Lipschitz condition.

06521656015796. 14045706162071, is shown in Figure 120(ii). 30 N UMERICAL M ETHODS FOR O RDINARY D IFFERENTIAL E QUATIONS Figure eight orbit If the three masses are comparable in value, then the restriction to a simpler system that we have considered is not available. However, in the case of a number of equal masses, other symmetries are possible. We consider just a single example, in which three equal, mutually attracting masses move in a figure eight orbit. This is shown in Figure 120(iii). 121 Delay problems and discontinuous solutions A functional differential equation is one in which the rate of change of y(x) depends not just on the values of y for the same time value, but also on time values less than x.

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An Introduction to the Study of Integral Equations by Maxime Bocher


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