By Christoph Stein, Christoph Stein
This quantity makes an attempt to summarize the present country of data on mechanisms underlying many of the results of analgesics, their facet influence profiles, and their symptoms and contraindications in scientific use. It additionally supplies insights into present efforts to find novel mechanisms underlying the iteration of other varieties of soreness and the ensuing improvement of latest modulating compounds.
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Additional resources for Analgesia
3 Clinical Applications . . Acute Pain . . . . . Chronic Pain . . . . Pharmacokinetics . . . Absorption . . . . . Distribution . . . . Metabolism and Excretion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Side Effects .
2000). After synthesis in the DRG, opioid receptors are transported to the peripheral nerve terminals of primary afferent neurons (Hassan et al. 1993; Fig. 4c). Opioid receptors are also expressed by neuroendocrine (pituitary, adrenals), immune, and ectodermal tissues (Slominski et al. 2000). Although opioids increase potassium currents in the CNS it is still controversial whether this occurs in DRG neurons. Rather, it was shown that the modulation of Ca2+ currents is the principal mechanism for the inhibitory effect of opioids on sensory neurons (Akins and Opioids 45 McCleskey 1993).
1991) but may produce analgesia via peripheral opioid receptors (Hanna et al. 2005; Tegeder et al. 2003). 1 Cardiovascular System High doses of morphine, fentanyl, sufentanil, remifentanil, and alfentanil are associated with a vagus-mediated bradycardia. Severe bradycardia or even asystole is possible, especially in conjunction with the vagal stimulating effects of intubation (Bowdle 1998). With the exception of meperidine, opioids do not depress cardiac contractility. Arterial blood pressure often falls as a result of bradycardia and decreased sympathetic reﬂexes.
Analgesia by Christoph Stein, Christoph Stein