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The power spectrum yielded by FFT analysis is used for resting-state tasks. The analysis of non-stationary neural activity requires signal-processing methods that compute changes in oscillatory activity at a particular frequency across time. , 1998). , phase- and time-locked) are called evoked oscillations. , time- but not phase-locked). Oscillatory activity that is in-phase with a stimulus averages across trials to produce an evoked-response assuming that (1) the delay of the electrical brain responses relative to the stimulus is invariable across the testing trial; and (2) the ongoing background activity is steady (Da Silva, 2005).

However, contrary findings have been reported regarding to the reliability of the MLAP which arises questions about their clinical use. For instance, there is no consensus in terms of the presence of MLAPs in children. , 1983). While present, MLAP may serve as an indicator of hearing 22 Psychiatric Disorders – Trends and Developments sensitivity, an absence of MLAP cannot be taken as an indication of hearing loss. , 1985). The difference in MLAP in normal subjects compared to MLAP in patients with neurological, cognitive, and speech disorders is also noted to be too small to equal an absent or abnormal MLAP with auditory pathway dysfunction.

Lastly, it is important to note that the alterations of P3a and P3b are not specific to schizophrenia. For instance, bipolar depression is linked to similar impairments. Although the lack of specificity is a limitation with respect to addressing the unique pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the P3 family may still serve as a trait marker for schizophrenia vulnerability. 2 Event-related Spectral Perturbations (ERSP) abnormalities in schizophrenia Neural oscillation and their synchronization are thought to reflect important mechanisms for interneural communication and binding of information that is processed in distinct brain areas (Roach and Mathalon, 2008).

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Berlitz English - Language for Life - Level 4 by Berlitz Languages

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