By M A Harder, R F Regtuit, G C Wakker
This quantity comprises the papers of the 'Seventh Groningen Workshop on Hellenistic Poetry: past the Canon' (Groningen 2004). through the workshop a primary draft of every of the papers used to be commented on by way of a global workforce of experts within the box of Hellenistic poetry. a few past workshops was once dedicated mostly to the main Hellenistic poets. This contemporary workshop explores what the poets 'beyond the canon' of Callimachus, Theocritus and Apollonius Rhodius needed to provide and it mentioned questions of canonicity in Hellenistic poetry on a extra basic point. The papers within the current quantity take care of a wide range of authors and genres: Herondas, Lycophron, Euphorion, Hermesianax, Cercidas, Crates of Thebes and Alexander Aetolus, and the didactic poetry of Aratus, Nicander and Ps.-Scymnus, the later bucolic poems of Moschus and Bion and the trend poems of Simias. even as specific awareness is given to the hexameter in inscribed Hellenistic epigram, that is in comparison to that of poets within the setting of the Museum of Alexandria. This quantity is a part of a sequence. each years a 'Workshop on Hellenistic Poetry' happens on the college of Groningen, the papers of that are released in 'Hellenistica Groningana'.
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The expedition returned successfully, bringing slaves and gold. The trade seems to have originated not with the Arabs, but with the Berber peoples of the desert. The most powerful of these desert Berbers were the Sanhaja, who lived in the Sahara and traded with the Soninke people who lived to the south. The Soninke’s early involvement with the traders CONNECTIONS of the Sahara is one reason Ghana emerged as the first of the great medieval empires. The other main reason the kola nut is not really a nut, but the edible seed of several is that Ghana controlled the species of evergreen trees.
Whether in the palace or under the giant shade tree, the royal audiences were formal and grand. An honor guard of 300 soldiers lined up in ranks outside the palace gate, half armed with bows and arrows and half with lances (a weapon with a sharp, iron point mounted on a wooden pole). Two saddled horses and two rams were always present. The horses were kept ready for the king’s use at any time, and the rams were believed to provide protection against witchcraft. 2 the mali Empire A Royal Wife in Trouble among the events arab historian ibn Battuta witnessed while in mali was an attempt to get rid of the king.
A king without support would have been overthrown while he was away. In fact, Sakura turned out to be one of Mali’s greatest kings. He brought political stability to the empire. This enabled trade from North Africa to flourish and increased Mali’s prosperity. Sakura also expanded the empire into new regions. He pushed the eastern frontier into the Songhay lands. It was probably during his reign that Mali also took control of the kingdom of Gao. Unfortunately, Sakura was killed on his way back from the pilgrimage.
Beyond the Canon (Hellenistica Groningana) by M A Harder, R F Regtuit, G C Wakker