By Bernhard Graimann, Brendan Z. Allison, Gert Pfurtscheller
A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes a right away output channel among the human mind and exterior units. BCIs infer consumer purpose through direct measures of mind task and hence allow verbal exchange and regulate with out circulation. This e-book, authored by means of specialists within the box, offers an obtainable creation to the neurophysiological and signal-processing history required for BCI, offers state of the art non-invasive and invasive ways, supplies an outline of present and software program recommendations, and experiences the main fascinating in addition to new, rising BCI functions. The e-book is meant not just for college kids and younger researchers, but additionally for beginners and different readers from different backgrounds prepared to profit approximately this important medical endeavour.
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Additional resources for Brain-computer interfaces : revolutionizing human-computer interaction
Today, there is no BCI that can allow independent control of 7 different degrees of freedom, which is necessary to duplicate all the movements that a natural arm could make. On the other hand, sufficiently independent control signals can be derived from the myoelectric signals recorded from the Fig. 9 Prototype of a prosthesis (Otto Bock HealthCare Products, Austria) with 7 degrees-offreedom fitted to a shoulder disarticulation amputee with targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR). Control signals are recorded from electrodes mounted on the left pectoralis muscle Brain–Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction 21 pectoralis.
Neuper, and G. Pfurtscheller, Steady-state somatosensory evoked potentials: suitable brain signals for brain-computer interfaces? , 30–37, (2006). 15. L. Citi, R. Poli, C. Cinel, and F. Sepulveda, P300-based BCI mouse with genetically-optimized analogue control. , 51–61, (2008). 16. J. Bell, P. Shenoy, R. N. Rao, Control of a humanoid robot by a noninvasive brain-computer interface in humans. , 214–220, (2008). 17. B. Allison, T. Luth, D. Valbuena, A. Teymourian, I. Volosyak, and A. Graeser, BCI Demographics: How Many (and What Kinds of) People Can Use an SSVEP BCI?
The Wadsworth SMR-based BCI has been used to answer simple yes/no questions with accuracies >95%, to perform basic word processing [64–66], and to move a cursor in two or three dimensions [62, 67] (see also chapter “BCIs in the Laboratory and at Home: The Wadsworth Research Program” in this book). In the Graz BCI system, a feature-selection algorithm uses data obtained during training sessions to select among a feature set that includes the frequency bands from 5 to 30 Hz and to train a classifier.
Brain-computer interfaces : revolutionizing human-computer interaction by Bernhard Graimann, Brendan Z. Allison, Gert Pfurtscheller