By Hermann Hiereth
This booklet covers all points of supercharging inner combustion engines. It information charging platforms and parts, the theoretical easy relatives among engines and charging platforms, in addition to format and review standards for most sensible interplay. assurance additionally describes contemporary reviews in layout and improvement of supercharging platforms, superior graphical shows, and so much complicated calculation and simulation instruments.
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In a diesel engine, CO and HC emissions are uncritically low. The test procedures and emission standards for passenger cars, trucks, and stationary engines valid in Europe, the United States and Japan are summarized in the appendix – Fig. 5. For additional information, due to the extensive nature of the regulations as well as test procedures and measurement instructions, it is referred to special literature and Codes of Regulations. 3 Methods for exhaust gas aftertreatment Regarding the methods for exhaust gas aftertreatment as well, we must refer the reader to the broad spectrum of special literature, unless technical aspects specially related to supercharging demand otherwise.
8. ece-R-49 stationary test cycle for trucks until 1999 (Euro 0 to Euro II) Additional measurement points at free choice of the inspector Load [%] 50% of max. load 30% of max. load Load Max. Load Engine speed Idle speed a b Fig. 9. 0 1 201 401 601 801 1,001 1,201 1,401 1,601 Driving time t [s] Fig. 10. 1 Gasoline engine For the gasoline engine, the problem of exhaust gas aftertreatment has been solved to a major extend by the introduction of the λ-controlled three-way catalyst (twc). Further emission reductions, down to sulev (super ultra low emission vehicle) speciﬁcations, can be achieved mainly by improving the cold start phase, in which today about 80–85% of the total cycle emissions are generated, by means of an improved catalyst light-off, and by reduced raw emissions during the cold start.
Therefore, the simulation-related themes are covered intensively in Sect. 6, and those of the thermodynamic as well as ﬂow design in Chap. 5. 1 Characteristic values for the description of the gas exchange and engine efﬁciencies Chain of engine efﬁciencies In order to clarify those relations, which ultimately will lead to the actual, so-called effective efﬁciency of a combustion engine, in the following the efﬁciency deﬁnitions of internal combustion engines are described. 12) covers the sum of all losses in an internal combustion engine and can therefore be deﬁned as the ratio between the brake effective work delivered and the mechanical work equivalent of the added fuel.
Charging the Internal Combustion Engine (Powertrain) (Powertrain) by Hermann Hiereth