By Ashok Mulchandani and Omowunmi A. Sadik (Eds.)
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Chemical reactor engineering, as a self-discipline, has a imperative function to play in aiding with the advance of enough innovations and applied sciences which may deal successfully with the troubles of latest society, that are more and more changing into attuned to the surroundings. the present problem is the way to adapt current techniques and items to fulfill extra rigorous environmental criteria.
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Ashworth, R. Narayanaswamy, R. E . Moss, I. O. Sutherland, A n Optical Potassium Ion Sensor, Analyst, 1978, 112, 1191-1192. 2. W . A. de Oliveira, R . Narayanaswamy, A Flow-Cell Optosensor for Lead Based on Immobilized Dithizone, Talanta, 1992, 39, 1499-1503. 3. D . J. Edlund, D . T. Friesen, W . K . Miller, C . A . Thornton, R. L. Wedel, G . W . Rayfield, J. R. Lowell, Thin-film Polymeric Sensors for Detection and Quantification of Multivalent Metal Ions, Sensors and Actuators B, 1 9 9 3 , 10, 185-190.
The remaining reagents were purchased from standard suppliers. Synthesis of Nitroformaldehyde P-naphthylhydrazone The P-naphthylamine hydrochloride (0,4 mole) was stirred overnight in a mixture of 100 m L of water and 120 mL of H C l and then diazotized with 28 g of N a N 0 dissolved in 60 m L of water at - 5 to - 8 ° C using a cold bath of dry ice and o-xylene. 4 mole (22 mL) of nitromethane in 100 mL of absolute ethanol with 16 g of NaOH in 100 m L of water at - 5 to - 8 ° C . The resulting white precipitate of the sodium salt of nitromethane was dissolved in 50 m L of water to give a yellow solution.
The electronic spectra of these products showed a very broad absorption in the 400-700 nm range without distinct maxima similar to the spectra of solid diarylnitroformazans. The infrared spectra of functionalized polymers in general exhibit changes in the relative intensities of bands in the 1100-1700 c m range as well as new bands at 1273,1320, 1520,1541, 1628 and 1653 c m - compared to the starting aminopolystyrene. Those absorptions can be observed as distinct bands or as shoulders depending on the degree of functionalization which would depend of course on the number of active sites on the polymer generated during diazotization.
Chemical and Biological Sensors for Environmental Monitoring by Ashok Mulchandani and Omowunmi A. Sadik (Eds.)