Download e-book for kindle: Chemical Bonds (Essential Chemistry) by Phillip Manning

By Phillip Manning

ISBN-10: 0791097404

ISBN-13: 9780791097403

Examines the character of the chemical bonds, answering primary questions about how they shape, how they're damaged, and the way they assist outline lifestyles as we all know it.

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Because all of the noble gases have eight electrons in their outermost shell, chemists came up with the octet rule. This rule states that when atoms undergo chemical reactions, they tend to do so in a way that all of the atoms in the resulting compound have eight electrons in their outer energy shells, even if they have to share some of them. The octet rule is unsophisticated compared to quantum mechanical approaches to forming compounds, and there are exceptions to it. Compounds with an odd number of valence electrons, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with 17 valence electrons spread over three atoms, for instance, do ­ not—­cannot—­obey the octet rule.

This rule states that when atoms undergo chemical reactions, they tend to do so in a way that all of the atoms in the resulting compound have eight electrons in their outer energy shells, even if they have to share some of them. The octet rule is unsophisticated compared to quantum mechanical approaches to forming compounds, and there are exceptions to it. Compounds with an odd number of valence electrons, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with 17 valence electrons spread over three atoms, for instance, do ­ not—­cannot—­obey the octet rule.

Scientists know now that these quantum numbers determine the energy and spatial distribution of electrons in an atom. The first of these is the principal quantum number. The principal quantum number corresponds roughly to one of Bohr’s circular energy shells. It is related to the average distance of an electron from the nucleus. Following the convention Bohr started, the principal quantum number for the lowest energy shell is called n=1, the next n=2 and so on, where n is any positive whole number.

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Chemical Bonds (Essential Chemistry) by Phillip Manning


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