By Ming-ko Woo
This e-book offers decade-long advances in atmospheric examine within the Mackenzie River Basin in northern Canada, which encompasses environments consultant of so much chilly parts in the world. Collaborative efforts by way of a crew of approximately a hundred scientists and engineers have yielded wisdom totally transferable to different excessive range areas in the USA, Europe and Asia. Emphases are put on the research of procedures (including hurricane genesis, precipitation, moisture and effort fluxes and frost), and the advance and alertness of a set of types and distant sensing to reinforce the evaluation of weather variability and water assets. This booklet enhances the second one quantity coming from the GEWEX venture, facing the region's hydrological strategies. jointly those books supply a special synthesis of atmospheric and hydrological findings and an integrative technique throughout disciplines in addressing significant examine problems with chilly areas.
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Extra info for Cold Region Atmospheric and Hydrologic Studies. The Mackenzie GEWEX Experience: Atmospheric Dynamics
Mean annual temperature at Fort Simpson, located near the middle of the basin, indicates a rise of about 1oC after 1975 (Fig. 4). Simulation of temperature tendencies by several Global Climate Models confirms that the Arctic is a sensitive indicator of climate change. 5oC by 2100, depending on which model result is consulted (ACIA 2005). 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Fig. 4. Annual temperature of Fort Simpson in Mackenzie Basin showing a sharp increase after the mid-1970s A change in the snow cover conditions has accompanied recent climate warming (Derksen et al.
For the MRB, Déry and Yau (2007) applied the PIEKTUK model with ERA-15 reanalysis data to show that surface and blowing snow sublimation deplete 29 mm of the annual precipitation. For comparison, the mean observed basin-average precipitation (Szeto et al. 2007a) for the snow season from November to March is about 115 mm while mean sublimation estimates for the corresponding period from the ERA-40 reanalysis is about 20 mm. Hence, despite the large interannual variability of surface snow observed in the region (Derksen et al.
There are positive MAGS Atmospheric Research 33 correlations between QRS and T, SH and E), creating an environment that is conducive to moist convection over the Basin. , net atmospheric radiative forcing, QR and cloudiness are positively correlated, as shown in Table 1b). The importance of cloud radiative forcing is noted by Guo et al. (2007a) who found that cloud effects can account for 3050% of the surface and TOA radiative budgets in the summer. Table 1. Contemporaneous correlation coefficients between monthly basinaverage net radiative forcing at the surface (QRS) and top-of-the-atmosphere (QR) and various water and energy budget parameters derived from the ERA-40 reanalysis for July and December, 1979-2001: (a) T (surface temperature); P (precipitation); SH (surface sensible heat flux); MC (tropospheric moisture flux convergence); E (evapotranspiration), and Q (precipitable water); (b) surfaceobserved cloud amount and various shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative flux components at the surface (BOA) and top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA).
Cold Region Atmospheric and Hydrologic Studies. The Mackenzie GEWEX Experience: Atmospheric Dynamics by Ming-ko Woo