By John Fernandes
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G and a slow growth rate of 2-3% per year is expected. 9 summarizes several of the more important chemicals that can be derived from ethanol. -operecycle Azeotropic dlsblatJon Witer removaf Fig. 9 : Benzene azeotropic distillation for anhydrous ethanol. Ethanol fuel use Fuel use in internal combustion engines is the fastest growing application for fementative ethanol. The original Otto engine was developed using angydrous ethanol fuel. Ethanol use in blends of up to 20 vol% with gasoline was widespread during World War n induced petroleum shortages.
5 wt% beer is 4h. Yeast strains used have been limited to slower fermenting varieties which have the necessary flocculence properties and will produce beer of the desired flavour characteristics. Fermentation temperature is regulated by cooling jackets at ordinary low brewing temperatures (16-23°C) for best flavour and this also reduces the specific ethanol production rate. A major drawback of the APV system is the long time required for start-up. Two to three weeks are required to build up the desired high cell density and achieve stable operation.
Molasses stillage also has sufficient sugars, largely derived from hydrolysis of nonfermentables during distillation to make secondary fermentation economically attractive. Stillage has also been used as fermentation medium for other important products. Grain stillage will support mold growth for amylase enzyme production. Supplemented grain and molasses stillage has been used for growth of Penicillium nota tum. Ashbya gossypii growth to increase B vitamin content of stillage for cattle feed has also been practiced.
Comprehensive biotechnology by John Fernandes