By David A. Patterson, John L. Hennessy
The period of probably limitless development in processor functionality is over: unmarried chip architectures can not triumph over the functionality obstacles imposed by means of the ability they eat and the warmth they generate. this present day, Intel and different semiconductor companies are forsaking the only quickly processor version in want of multi-core microprocessors--chips that mix or extra processors in one package deal. within the fourth version of Computer Architecture, the authors specialize in this old shift, expanding their assurance of multiprocessors and exploring the simplest methods of attaining parallelism because the key to unlocking the facility of a number of processor architectures. also, the hot version has multiplied and up to date insurance of layout subject matters past processor functionality, together with strength, reliability, availability, and dependability.
CD approach Requirements
The CD fabric contains PDF files so that you can learn with a PDF viewer reminiscent of Adobe, Acrobat or Adobe Reader. fresh models of Adobe Reader for a few structures are incorporated at the CD.
The content material is designed to be seen in a browser window that's not less than 720 pixels vast. you could locate the content material doesn't show good in the event that your exhibit isn't set to at the least 1024x768 pixel resolution.
This CD can be utilized lower than any working procedure that incorporates an HTML browser and a PDF viewer. This comprises home windows, Mac OS, and so much Linux and Unix structures.
Increased assurance on reaching parallelism with multiprocessors.
Case experiences of contemporary know-how from together with the sunlight Niagara Multiprocessor, AMD Opteron, and Pentium 4.
Three evaluate appendices, integrated within the revealed quantity, evaluation the fundamental and intermediate ideas the most textual content is predicated upon.
Eight reference appendices, accumulated at the CD, hide more than a few themes together with particular architectures, embedded structures, program particular processors--some visitor authored by way of topic specialists.
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Additional resources for Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach (4th Edition)
Device speed scales more slowly, as we discuss below. ■ Semiconductor DRAM (dynamic random-access memory)—Capacity increases by about 40% per year, doubling roughly every two years. ■ Magnetic disk technology—Prior to 1990, density increased by about 30% per year, doubling in three years. It rose to 60% per year thereafter, and increased to 100% per year in 1996. Since 2004, it has dropped back to 30% per year. Despite this roller coaster of rates of improvement, disks are still 50–100 times cheaper per bit than DRAM.
Processing of a 300 mm (12-inch) diameter wafer in a leading-edge technology costs between $5000 and $6000 in 2006. 25 cm2 die would be about $46, or almost four times the cost for a die that is a little over twice as large. What should a computer designer remember about chip costs? The manufacturing process dictates the wafer cost, wafer yield, and defects per unit area, so the sole control of the designer is die area. In practice, because the number of defects per unit area is small, the number of good dies per wafer, and hence the cost per die, grows roughly as the square of the die area.
6 ■ Chapter One Fundamentals of Computer Design Servers As the shift to desktop computing occurred, the role of servers grew to provide larger-scale and more reliable file and computing services. The World Wide Web accelerated this trend because of the tremendous growth in the demand and sophistication of Web-based services. Such servers have become the backbone of large-scale enterprise computing, replacing the traditional mainframe. For servers, different characteristics are important. First, dependability is critical.
Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach (4th Edition) by David A. Patterson, John L. Hennessy