By A. J. Croft
This e-book is intended for laboratory employees who for one cause or one other have a necessity to chill anything all the way down to temperatures under that of liquid nitrogen - significantly to four. 2°K and under. It doesn't take care of experimental ideas at low temperatures, yet i've got attempted to deliver the reader head to head with the brutishrealities of the required undefined. As weIl as giving information regarding assets of provide of apparatus, i've got long gone into so me aspect approximately how a few of it may be made in laboratory workshops for the sake of these who're in need of funds yet blessed with powerfuble technical help. as far as hugely really expert goods resembling liquefiers, fridges, refrigerant boxes, cryostat dewars, and so forth. , are involved, i've got incorporated aIl assets of offer which i've got obtained to he ar of; in relation to extra generaIly to be had apparatus in simple terms consultant resources of identified reliability were quoted. Any omissions or error has to be placed down both to my very own lack of expertise, stupidity, or loss of will toget in regards to the global, or maybe to the trouble i've got had in extracting details from brands. in spite of the fact that, so much have long past to nice difficulty to assist, and that i wish i've got performed them justice. mentioned to paintings indifferently in inches and centimetres and perched among the opposing puIls of the us and Europe, i've got used a mix of devices that can surprise the purist.
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Extra info for Cryogenic Laboratory Equipment
It is making heavy weather of compressing helium to 15 atm to use four stages. 80 - with no trouble attributable to oil decomposition. These four-stage compressors therefore seem unnecessarily bulky and expensive. ) The ADL-Collins liquefier is available in the following forms: Model 25. Includes one 35 fe -min-I compressor set and liquefies into a 15-litre internal reservoir from which liquid is withdrawn discontinuously by hand. Output: Without liquid nitrogen: 2 litres-hr l . With liquid nitrogen: 5 litres-hr- l .
Appl. , 1, 137 (1950). 5. ClOft, A. , accepted for publication in Cryogenics (1970). lIO sometimes occur in storage vessels and cryostat dewars, and can give rise to al;mormally high evaporation rates. They can usually be cured readily by introducing acoustically absorbent material. 1. PRINCIPLES There are three ways of cooling agas: (1) by exploiting the latent heat of evaporation of another gas of lower boiIing point; (2) by causing it to do extemal work; and (3) by making use of the negative Joule Thomson effect, arising from repulsive intermolecular forces which result in the performance of what is called internal work on expansion.
Sec. 2 Commercial External-Work Liqueflers and Refrigerators 37 thereby doubled. An outer cylindrical tank enables a high vacuum to be maintained in the space surrounding the enclosure described above and including the radiation shield. This construction is equivalent to putting the whole of the helium system into adewar vessel and has the advantage that there are few sources of possible leaks into the highvacuum insulation. The standard Kellog compressor unit supplies 35 fe -min- I at 220 lb-in-~ and consists of two separate units, each of two stages, which together form an air-cooled four-stage compressor.
Cryogenic Laboratory Equipment by A. J. Croft