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As M. ”27 That this is the case in 1QS is suggested by comparison with the parallel command in 4QSb 9:8c–9a. 28 Of course, the citation of Lev 22:16 does not support the first command to refrain from touching the “purity” but the second command not to join with him, the “People of Iniquity” represented as a single individual, in work and wealth in 1QS 5:14b–15b. Yet this command may also be related to priestly eating. The term ‫“( הון‬wealth”) occurs not only in 5:14 but also in 5:16 (cf. further 5:2, 3, 20; 4QSb 9:2, 3, 10, 11, 13) in relation to the command not to eat, drink, or take anything from the “People of Iniquity” without ‫“( מחיר‬pay”), that is, proper recompense.

Second, there seems to be an allusion to Zeph 2:3, in addition to the implicit citation of Mic 6:8, in 1QS 5:3–4. g. Metso, “Use of Old Testament Quotations,” 221, who observes that an anticipatory ‫ דבר‬appears in 1QS 5:14 as well. g. J. I. Durham, Exodus (WBC 3; Waco: Word, 1987), 315. 32 However, cf. 1QS 5:19 vs. 4QSb 9:12 in which ‫ ברית‬appears in both textual traditions. The term ‫ ברית‬also appears in 1QS 5:18, without parallel in 4QSb. 33 Rule of Qumran and Its Meaning, 172. 48 A. J. 34 Although the implicit citation of Mic 6:8 and possible allusion to Zeph 2:3 are also present in 4QSb 9:3b–4a,35 there is one slight and perhaps significant difference.

This is one redactional sign that, at least to me, does not seem to be reversible. In short, then, the use of unparalleled scriptural citations in 1QS 5:1–20a appears to provide us with an internal control for determining the redactional direction with the 4QSb,d textual tradition. In closing, I wish to note the significance of this study in relation to any future redactional work done on 1QS and its 4Q parallels. In their DJD volume on the cave 4 S texts, P. S. Alexander and G. 41 Yet, concerning this very redaction history Metso says, “There was no ready-made scheme in the minds of redactors which they would have followed when arranging the material and editing the text.

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Dead Sea Discoveries 17 1 by Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar, Editor


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