By Tsutomu and Kayoko Okamoto
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Additional info for Development of Gait By Electromyography
EMGs on the 1st day of independent walking (at 10 months of age). ST: stance phase, SW: swing phase, (R): right leg, (L): left leg, TA: tibialis anterior, LG: lateral gastrocnemius, VM: vastus medialis, RF: rectus femoris, BF: biceps femoris , GM: gluteus maximus, KNEE EXT: extension, KNEE FLEX: flexion. 28 Development of Gait Figure 2-2 shows a representative excerpt of the EMG patterns of the infant's independent walking on the day when she succeeded in walking 5 to 10 steps for the first time, at 10 months after birth.
1-18). The foot reached the floor in a relatively passive action of the lower limb, contacting the floor variously with the heel, entire sole, or lateral border. Thelen et al. (1982, 1987) did not find any strong activity in the gastrocnemius before floor contact in the neonatal period. In the second month, at the onset of the infant period, the LG and VM began to become active before actual contact of the foot with the floor, with the lateral part of the forefoot generally touching the floor first.
Although a great deal of investigation has been done on development of gait, there are few EMG studies in the area. Crosssectional kinesiological EMG studies on the development of independent gait in babies have been performed by Sutherland et al. (1980), Forssberg (1985), and Thelen et al. (1987), but we have not seen much longitudinal EMG study on the acquisition of gait outside of that by Okamoto et al. (1972, 1983, 1985, 2001, 2003). By means of both longitudinal and cross-sectional EMG and cinematographic findings, we have reported that specific changes can be observed at certain times in the course of that development.
Development of Gait By Electromyography by Tsutomu and Kayoko Okamoto