By Dorothy K. Hall, Jaroslav Martinec (auth.)
Remote sensing utilizing airplane and satellites has helped to divulge heart's contents to intensified clinical scrutiny the chilly and distant areas within which snow and ice are universal. during this e-book, the application of distant sensing for selecting, mapping and interpreting floor and subsurface homes of globally ice and snow positive factors is defined. Emphasis is put on using distant sensing for constructing a far better knowing of the actual homes of ice and snow and realizing the interrelationships of cryospheric techniques with atmospheric, hydrospheric and oceanic tactics. present and strength functions of remotely sensed facts also are under pressure. at the moment, all-weather, day and evening observations of the polar areas could be acquired from sensors working in several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. as the ways for research of remotely sensed info aren't basic, bankruptcy 1 serves to introduce the reader to a couple of the optical, thermal and electric houses of ice and snow as they pertain to distant sensing. In bankruptcy 2 we in brief describe the various sensors and systems which are pointed out within the remainder of the e-book. the remainder chapters care for distant sensing of the seasonal snow disguise, lake and river ice, permafrost, glacier ice and sea ice.
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Extra info for Remote Sensing of Ice and Snow
Geophys. Union, Part 1, pp. 149-53. Rango, A. (1980) Remote sensing of snow covered area for runoff modelling, Hydrological Forecasting, Proceedings ofthe Oxford Symposium, IAHS Publication No. 291-7. Rango, A. and Itten, K. 1. (1976) Satellite potentials in snowcover monitoring and runoff prediction. Nord. 7, pp. 209-30. , Foster, J. and Marks, D. ote Data Transmission, IUGG-IAHS General Assembly, Hamburg, 1983. Unesco/lAHS/WMO (1970) Seasonal Snow Cover, Technical papers in hydrology, No. 2, Paris.
Maximum water equivalent in February; in the hydrological year (OctoberSeptember) of 1960, early snowfalls caused a maximum snow depth already in November. However, the corresponding water equivalent was relatively small due to the low density of the new snow. 4), Fig. 6 demonstrates the role of time in the gradual increase in snow density. Due to the temperature lapse rate, the maximum accumulation of snow is not synchronous at differen t altitudes. 1. , it generally occurs in February. It is therefore difficult to set even an average single date of maximum accumulation for basins with a considerable elevation range.
Bericht, Institut fur angewandte Physik, Universitat Bern, Bern. F. (1964) Ice and glaciers. In Applied Hydrology, (ed. T. Chow) Section 16, McGraw-Hill, New York. Mellor, M. (1964) Snow and Ice on the Earth's Surface, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire, Report II -C 1. B. L. (1971) Evaluation of snow water equivalent by airborne measurement of passive terrestrial gamma radiation. Water Resour. , 7 (5),1151-9. L. (1937) Snow surveys and runoffforecasting from photographs.
Remote Sensing of Ice and Snow by Dorothy K. Hall, Jaroslav Martinec (auth.)