William E. Burns's Science in the Enlightenment: An Encyclopedia (History of PDF

By William E. Burns

ISBN-10: 1576078868

ISBN-13: 9781576078860

ISBN-10: 1576078876

ISBN-13: 9781576078877

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Extra info for Science in the Enlightenment: An Encyclopedia (History of Science)

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Several societies were formed in Germany: The Göttingen Academy, closely connected with its university, in 1752, followed by the Erfurt Academy in 1754 and the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in Munich in 1759. The Mannheim Academy, founded in 1763, is particularly noteworthy for its offshoot, the Meteorological Society of Mann- heim founded in 1780, which had an ambitious program for worldwide weather observation employing standardized instruments and reporting forms. This was the last great cooperative effort of the scientific societies in the eighteenth century.

Serious cooperation in joint scientific endeavors began in the 1750s and 1760s, with the transit observations and expeditions. The second half of the eighteenth century saw a wave of society creation, as the leaders of most large European and colonial cities believed a society was essential to their cities’ prestige. Several societies were formed in Germany: The Göttingen Academy, closely connected with its university, in 1752, followed by the Erfurt Academy in 1754 and the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in Munich in 1759.

Initial development of flying balloons was due to two paper-manufacturing brothers in the French town of Annonay, Joseph-Michel Montgolfier (1740–1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier (1745–1799). Both had some scientific education and shared in the movement toward state-supported technical experimentation common in lateeighteenth-century France. Joseph-Michel seems to have originated the idea of flying balloons, influenced by the discovery of different gases, some of which were lighter than air.

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Science in the Enlightenment: An Encyclopedia (History of Science) by William E. Burns


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